Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How At Risk Students Make It For College - 940 Words

In the June 8th, 2011 article How At-Risk Students Make It to College, published in the Hispanic Times Magazine, the un-named author is explaining how there are several factors that can have a positive influence on any student, and most importantly, on an at risk students, to make the decision about going to a four-year college. The author is showing us the most important influencing factors such as family and peers. The author also tells us what an at risk-student is. The author is also telling us that within the key factors, there are some underlining factors that can influence us in ways we don’t think about. For example, the one step that we don’t really think about is the college application process, which is one of the factors we don’t think about until we have to go through the process ourself, when we decide to go to a four-year college. The thought of college can be very intimidating, especially to an at-risk students. At-risk students are the ones who are most likely to be loners, and ones that don’t care for school, because they lack the motivation and support they need. The author refers to the at-risk students as â€Å"latch-key†, which implies that they don’t have the needed parental guidance or companionship at home. These at-risk students are most likely to be between the ages of 16-18 yeas of age. I also believe along with the author that the reason why they are at risk students are, their family situation, their peers and the lack of interest they have inShow MoreRelatedCollege Dropout Rate And Evidence1332 Words   |  6 PagesCollege Dropout Rate Evidence To Support You re done, you have dropped out of college and there s nothing you can do. Congratulations, you are now in the 1.3 million that also contributed to this statistic. The college dropout rate varies based upon a wide variety of problems college students encounter. Now your reasons for dropping out? There could be many, some of which you couldn t control. However, there are some that directly contribute to the dropout rate; that you could have. We’ll beRead MoreCollege Should Offer Learners Not Only A Strong Academic Awareness Essay1448 Words   |  6 Pages College should offer learners not only a strong academic awareness, but it should be friendly, helping and nurturing place for students. Concern of scholar’s personal and academic well-being should always be in a center of Institution’s mission. The student service program I would like to offer would be called â€Å"Arizona Hope and Help† or â€Å"AHH†, and it would be focused on providing non-academic support for all â€Å"at-risk† students. The services, of course, would be provided free of charge to meet theRead MoreShould Guns Be Allowed On College Campuses?948 Words   |  4 PagesComparison and Contrast Paper: Should Guns Be Allowed on College Campuses? Hi I am a college student at Palm Beach State College in Florida West Palm Beach. One time I went to a guns store in which you can also practice how to use a gun. I was fourteen years the first time that I used a gun. I went to the place with my sister, three cousins and my father. The truth is that it was fun to use a gun, although we all knew it was dangerous to use one if we had not have any experience with it beforehandRead More College Students and Alcohol Essays1138 Words   |  5 Pages College Students and Alcohol College student drunkenness is far from new and neither are college and university efforts to control it. What is new, however, is the potential to make real progress on this age-old problem based on scientific research results. New research-based information about the consequences of high-risk college drinking and how to reduce it can empower colleges and universities, communities, and other interested organizations to take effective action. 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Employers must complete and review all risk assessmentsRead MoreCollege Drinking A Major Problem That Affects The Lives Of Many People1138 Words   |  5 Pages Josh Roy Essay 3 Final College drinking a major problem that affects the lives of many College drinking is a major problem and it affects the lives of students their families and the community. As the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website notes: â€Å"About four out of five college students drink alcohol. . .† (â€Å"College Drinking†). The Affects of alcohol have impacted the lives of many people. I believe drinking is a problem, and believe that it is a problemRead MorePopping The Bubble : The True Cost Of Student Loans1699 Words   |  7 PagesTrue Cost of Student Loans Kyle Laffin is seen as an typical mid 20’s American. He attended college to pursue a degree in accounting and financial freedom, but this came at a cost which he didn’t imagine. He took out a loan with his father as an cosigner for a little over $100,000. Even though he got an accounting job directly out of college, he is now stuck paying back a monthly loan payment of $1,200, when he only makes $3,333 a month before taxes. This has forced his father to make payment sinceRead MoreEffects Of On Campus Housing On College Students Drinking Behavior1565 Words   |  7 PagesEffects of on-campus housing on college students’ drinking behavior: A Literature Review Educational scholars have widely researched the effects of on-campus housing on the behavior of college students and one of the behavioral effects is on drinking behavior. Researchers from both the United States and New Zealand have found that students living in residential halls on campus demonstrate the greatest rates for drinking and peer pressure for drinking (Rickwood, et al., 2011.). Leontini, et al.

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Transplantation Regime In Cornea Graft †Myassignmenthelp.Com

Question: Discuss About The Transplantation Regime In Cornea Graft? Answer: Introduction Eyesight is one the most cherished senses among humanity. Those born without the gift of sight or those whose ability to see is impaired go to unimaginable lengths to restore or improve it. The eye, the organ whose primary function is to see, has various vital parts including the cornea. For various reasons including congenital disabilities, injury and infections, the corneas ability to perform its functions can be compromised. There are various treatment options available for corneal treatment depending on the source of the defect. Over the past half of the century, millions of patients have undergone corneal transplantation around the world due to corneal infection, corneal degeneration and corneal injuries in an attempt to restore and improve vision (Tan et al., 2012). These patients require post-transplantation regimen adherence to improve outcomes. In this paper, we will focus on the post-translation regimen adherence patient education following corneal transplantation in Singap ore. In modern medical care, patients are part of the medical team. They should be involved in every decision made regarding their treatment. This is important because it fosters adherence to treatment regimens and self-care among many other reasons (Davis et al., 2007). However, it is difficult to include patients without conducting proper education. Transplantation of the corneal at times poses complications including graft rejections just like in the other cases of organ transplantation (Panda et al., 2007). Statistics indicate graft rejections following corneal transplantation take place in 5 to 30% of recipients. According to (Bachmann et al., 2008), corneal graft rejection is regarded the severest of the complications occurring after corneal transplantation. One of the common causes of corneal graft rejection is patients non-adherence to the post-transplantation treatment, and it has been known to orchestrate dreadful consequences, including acute rejection and severely reduced quality of life. According to Radhakrishnan, Yadav, and Sachdeva (2009), preparing organ recipients before the procedure puts them on right path to knowing how to take care of their new organ. The efforts to avoid graft rejection need to start immediately when recipient has consented to organ transplant through education. Proper education can enable them to recognize early graft rejection, report it early, improve adherence to the prescribed regimen and schedule checkups with a corneal specialist in case of any complications (Radhakrishnan, Yadav Sachdeva, 2009). In addition, it will make it easier for the patients to take an active role in their journey back to recovery. Various scholars have reviewed literature in which they have asserted that patient education is fundamental in fostering adherence to the post-transplantation regimen; all of which have a substantial anchorage in behavioral, social, cognitive and Rogers learning theories. Ha and Longnecker (2010) note that patient education is geared towards making recipients have knowledge about the disease, acquire precise skills necessary during treatment, and ultimately equip them with coping tactics. It is paramount that that organ recipients and healthcare counselors sustain a cordial relationship, which is instrumental in enhancing adherence to the post-transplantation treatment and improving the quality of life and keeping medical expenses in check. Various theories have been put forward as integral during the teaching process. Teachers, in this case, healthcare practitioners, are at liberty to choose the most suitable theory or theories suitable in the instructional process. Andragogy, unlike pedagogy, focuses on adult teaching. Following an andragogy approach, healthcare practitioners can transfer to corneal transplantation adult patients with ease (Bover Draganov et al., 2013). Principle of Patient Education and Adult Learning Theory Principles of Patient Education Patient learning is guided by various principles. The first principle indicates that the instructor cannot avoid teaching whether intentional or not. Teaching takes place in many ways as healthcare practitioners make contact with their patients including words, actions and nonverbal behavior (Mann, 2011). As such, it is the practitioners choice to teach well or not. The second principle reminds the nursing practitioners that teaching is an integral part of the caring process. Good teachings stay with the patients and their families for a long time (Glanz, Rimer Viswanath, 2008). Studies have established that the impact of teaching is never immediate and may go unnoticed by the healthcare practitioners during physical contact with patients and as such, it should not deter physicians from dispensing the correct amount and quality of education. It is important for the nursing practitioners to assess patients knowledge before dispensing more knowledge. Adult patients are likely to have a lifetime of experience and knowledge. The fourth principle of teaching underscores the fact that a good session must embody an introduction, body, and conclusion. It is important for the instructors to introduce themselves during which they should involve the patients in ice-breaking and establishing the goal of the session. It is this stage that nursing counselors need to build their anticipation of the learning session. For instance, the nurse educators can identify things that they expect the patients to perform at home (Mann, 2011). The second phase is all about the body. The information should be delivered with patient involvement. It should be planned carefully to ensure patients grasped key concepts. Simple information communication materials may be used to convey the main points. The instructor can start the conclusion part of teaching sessions by asking the patients to do what was discussed in the expected outcome. It is important for instructors to offer positive reinforcements even for the smallest of the achi evements realized by the patients. Additional reinforcements can be given alongside further guidance in areas patients make errors. Each session should end with a positive note. Another principle opines that adults tend to be autonomous and self-directed and as such, it is important for the nursing counselor to let them direct their own learning. In cases where the learning exercise is taking place from a classroom, it vital for the facilitator to actively involve the adult learners in the learning process. Adult education facilitators must be specific in guiding the learners rather than just supplying information. It is important that the nursing counselor allows learners assume responsibility in which discussions and group-based presentations are most fundamental in the instructional process (Mann, 2011). Is always advisable to teach the what before the how to hasten to grasp of ideas. Detailed explanation about corneal transplantation can come after the patients have understood what the subject matter is all about. This principle gives leeway for the nursing counselor to teach more than the patient can use at that particular moment. Use of time blocks is highly encouraged when teaching. Here, instructors are discouraged from teaching everything at ones. Teaching one concept per session ensures that patients retain most of the information taught (Freeman Rodriguez, 2011). The last principle encourages the nursing counselors to rehearse. Rehearsing of ones material is beneficial in many ways. It ensures that appropriate time is allocated for each session besides enhancing mastery and delivery of the information. In the event that demonstrations are required, rehearsal ensures that the presenter adequately demonstrates each step having rehearsed it by themselves (Freeman Rodriguez, 2011). In addition, when presenters rehearse, it is quicker for them to solve any problems that may arise because they master the complex steps when rehearsing. Adult Learning Theories The andragogy learning theory has been cited as the best theory in imparting patient education among adults. The theory is anchored on the principle that adults are a rich source of information with wide ranging experiences that offers the basis of new information. As such, the customary tactic instructional process suitable for children is not suitable (Gremigni et al., 2007). The theory emphasizes that the process of teaching about cornea transplantation is important than the actual outcome of avoiding it (Babakhani et al., 2013). As noted earlier, the impact of the education is hardly felt immediately. The information was given, however, stays with the patients and their families years after the fact. The transfer of knowledge is not automatic when applying this theory. It takes patience and continued coaching and support for the patient to master the skills of self-managing and adherence to drug regimens following cornea transplantation (Braungart Braungart, 2007). Constructivist theory (CLT) is similar in approach to andragogy. However, it deviates a little in that it is also applicable to children. When applying CLT in teaching cornea transplant, it is paramount to keep in mind Piagets (1964) who insists of earning by way of discovering. Vgotsky (1962) also asserted that clear instructions and socialization are vital in supporting patients make meaning of the conditions afflicting them. CLT is primarily learner centered. The nursing instructor is regarded as just a facilitator. The facilitator must come up with practical ways of promoting self-care and self-management following corneal transplantation. When the instructor is dealing with multiple patients, he or she must be aware that different patients experience different causes of cornea rejection and as such will require dissimilar approaches (Glanz, Rimer Viswanath, 2008). Components of Effective Patient Education Effective patient education must meet certain parameters in order to foster adherence, self-care, and self-management in post-transplantation regimen in corneal graft failure. The first component relates to the amount time taken per session. Patients are likely to be in discomfort, and therefore their attention spans are likely to be short. Most studies recommend a session spanning between half an hour to one hour (Griffiths et al., 2007). This is critical to ensuring that the patients excitement to learn remaining riveted throughout out the session. During my sessions, I have always found the use of verbal teaching only not enough. It is always important to supplement it with written material and other media to reinforce the information and make it a little more exciting and memorable. For instance, in the case of adults, they are more of visual learners than verbal ones. The instructor ought to provide patients with post-transplantation regimen diaries that comprise activities that can be incorporated into daily routine. When patients reading skills proof inadequate, it is important to provide pictograms that can paint images in patients minds on the steps involved in cornea care following transplantation (Aliakbari et al., 2015). Writing down an action plan has been known to work for most patients. It is used in communicating the anticipated information from the nursing counselors to their patients. It has also been used in emphasizing communication on how organ recipients can identify the peak flow measurements and take the most suitable responses. Organ recipients who comprehend this stand better chances of managing symptoms of graft failure. A well-drafted organ transplant management action plan must incorporate the drugs taken every day and their corresponding dosages. It is important to understand how the drugs are taken and dosages required for each session. The written plan may also entail information that the recipients have a firm grasp the actions required to regulate and keep off triggers completely. Patients readiness to identify and handle deteriorating signs and symptoms is also a part of the action plan in addition to patients comprehension of medication and the dosages needed as a response to aggravating symptoms as emanating from graft failure. Lastly, the patient needs to have emergency contacts for hospitals and even their doctors. Conclusion The review has shown that patient education enables the patients to lead a comfortable life and even without symptoms after cornea transplants. Various parameters have been highlighted as integral to leading symptom-free life after corneal transplantation in graft failure and may embody regular and unhindered access to care, awareness of the prescribed regimens and knowledge on the adjustments of the environment to reduce exposure to unaccommodating conditions. Notwithstanding this, current findings indicate that most people with cornea transplant hardly get the necessary care as specified in most treatment guidelines. On top of that, patients shy away from seeking cornea care on a frequent basis particularly those who come from economically disadvantaged households. The general purpose for expert treatment and enhanced self-management via doctor-patient education is to keep graft rejection under check. Put differently, doctor-patient education is fundamental in the reduction of the graft rejection rates and related morbidity as well as augmented functional ability and a better quality of life. Teaching patients promote avoidance of triggers, raises patient adherence and enhances patient ability to notice the symptoms of graft rejection and seek medical services in timely manner. References Babakhani, A., Guy, S. R., Falta, E. M., Elster, E. A., Jindal, T. R., Jindal, R. M. (2013). Surgeons bring RRT to patients in Guyana.Bull Am Coll Surg,98(6), 17-27. Bachmann, B. O., Bock, F., Wiegand, S. J., Maruyama, K., Dana, M. R., Kruse, F. E., ... Cursiefen, C. (2008). Promotion of graft survival by vascular endothelial growth factor a neutralization after high-risk corneal transplantation.Archives of Ophthalmology,126(1), 71-77. Bover Draganov, P., de Carvalho Andrade, A., Ribeiro Neves, V., Sanna, M. C. (2013). Andragogy in nursing: a literature review.Investigacin y Educacin en Enfermera,31(1), 86-94. Braungart, M., Braungart, R. (2007). Applying learning theories to healthcare practice. Davis, R. E., Jacklin, R., Sevdalis, N., Vincent, C. A. (2007). Patient involvement in patient safety: what factors influence patient participation and engagement?.Health expectations,10(3), 259-267. Freeman, H. P., Rodriguez, R. L. (2011). History and principles of patient navigation.Cancer,117(S15), 3537-3540. Glanz, K., Rimer, B. K., Viswanath, K. (Eds.). (2008).Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. John Wiley Sons. Gremigni, P., Bacchi, F., Turrini, C., Cappelli, G., Albertazzi, A., Bitti, P. E. R. (2007). Psychological factors associated with medication adherence following renal transplantation.Clinical transplantation,21(6), 710-715. Griffiths, C., Foster, G., Ramsay, J., Eldridge, S., Taylor, S. (2007). How effective are expert patient (lay led) education programmes for chronic disease?.BMJ: British Medical Journal,334(7606), 1254. Ha, J. F., Longnecker, N. (2010). Doctor-patient communication: a review.The Ochsner Journal,10(1), 38-43. Mann, K. V. (2011). Theoretical perspectives in medical education: past experience and future possibilities.Medical education,45(1), 60-68. Panda, A., Vanathi, M., Kumar, A., Dash, Y., Priya, S. (2007). Corneal graft rejection.Survey of ophthalmology,52(4), 375-396. Radhakrishnan, N., Yadav, S. P., Sachdeva, A. (2009). ORGAN TRANSPLANTATION.INDIAN JOURNAL OF PRACTICAL PEDIATRICS,11(2), 25. Tan, D. T., Dart, J. K., Holland, E. J., Kinoshita, S. (2012). Corneal transplantation.The Lancet,379(9827), 1749-1761.

Saturday, April 18, 2020

Thoreau, Henry David Essays - Civil Disobedience,

Thoreau, Henry David The battle was raging. The two races were pitted against each other in a fight to the death. The ground was already littered with the wounded and dying. One pair was locked together as they tumbled over and over. Both were relentlessly hanging on until one or the other would die. As Henry David Thoreau watched this battle between Red and Black Ants, he thought about life. Henry David Thoreau grew up in Concord, Massachusetts in the mid 1800's. When he was about sixteen he went to Harvard for his college education. Despite his Harvard degree, he was considered an outcast because he didn't do anything "useful" with his life. He wasn't interested in making a living in society. He focused on discovering the "facts of life". Thoreau moved into the woods called Walden not far from his home. He felt that being alone with nature would enable him to think and write more clearly. One of the thoughts that came from his "higher thinking" was that "Our life is frittered away by detail". This quotation is important because it applies to all people, in Thoreau's time and in modern times. Thoreau is saying that all people, rich and poor, young and old, fritter their lives away with detail, instead of being concerned with the big picture. The important thing to Thoreau was having time to think about how man fits in with nature and what his place on earth is. Thoreau believed that man only needed the basics of food, clothing and shelter. Everything else was a luxury that took time to obtain. Thoreau thought that time spent getting anymore than the basics was not time well spent. Thoreau couldn't understand why people in his time would waste energy on things that could become very stressful. For example, the railroads and telegraphs were crisscrossing Concord. They brought commerce, but they also brought noise and pollution, and cut up the landscape. There were more goods for people to buy, but they were unnecessary frills in Thoreau's mind. Thoreau wished for a simple life, unfettered by material possessions. Thoreau's quotation is applicable in today's life more than ever. The appearance of railroads and commerce in Thoreau's time was the start of the modern day "rat race". Thoreau wanted people in his time to realize how much time they were wasting with busywork and trifles. Today, people are even worse in that respect than before. With all today's products, from computers and cell phones to cereal boxes, there are so many more choices and things to deal with. People waste time choosing what clothes to wear with which shoes and so on. Thoreau on the other hand, wouldn't bother worrying about things as unimportant as that. Today, we know Thoreau was right, yet few people actually do forget about the little details. "Our life is frittered away by detail" is a quotation for all times. Thoreau was able to block out the trivia of everyday life and explore a broad range of profound thoughts. He moved to Walden to concentrate on only the basics. People would criticize him for his "outrageous" ideas, but his ideas actually weren't that "outrageous". Thoreau's ideas won't fade away with time. They will get stronger with time as people yearn for a more simple life and some freedom from the stress and hassles of having to make too many choices and understand complicated technologies.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

102 Causality and Research Professor Ramos Blog

102 Causality and Research Causality Quick Write Any questions on the Causal Analysis essay? Causality Causality: the relationship of cause and effect You should identify the types of causal relationships on your charts (you might use different types of arrows, different colors, or simply labels to show what kind of cause is being mapped). Necessary Cause: any factor that must be in place for something to occur. Sufficient Cause: is a condition that always produces the effect in question. Precipitating Cause: the proverbial straw that breaks a camel’s back. Proximate Cause: nearby and often easy to spot. Remote Cause: may act at some distance from an event but be closely tied to it. Reciprocal Cause: you have a reciprocal situation when a cause leads to an effect that, in turn, strengthens the cause. Contributing Factors: add to the causes to bring about the effect. Document Cause and Effect Take a picture of a cause and an effect. Share both on Twitter or Instagram. Combine them if you can. You can locate them online or outside. Label the causal relationship. Tag it with #ramosclass Why is society so fascinated with serial killers? Asking Why Why College Students Aren’t Voting What is the question   you are exploring? Use why, how, and what if to come up with your question. Why do we have some many school shootings? Why did Harvey Weinstein get away with it for so long? Using Sources What are the ways you can use sources in your essay? Explain Provide information Examples Credibility Quotes Research data Ideas! Quote Sandwich One of the most important skills you can learn in academic writing is how to incorporate sources. To help remember this, we will use the metaphor of the quotation sandwich. The Quote Sandwich. Introduce the Quote, Quote, explain the quote. Do not drive by quote. When you quote or use a source you have to explain it and use it. The quote sandwich is why you cannot start or end a paragraph with a quote.

Thursday, February 27, 2020

United Parcel Service Inc Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

United Parcel Service Inc - Essay Example That is through effectiveness and efficiency in combining the flow of products, funds, and information. In the course of achieving these goals, the strategy of the company aims at sustaining core competencies in pursuit of sustainability. That is through utilization of technology to generate new services while studying the behaviour of the consumers to anticipate their needs and expectations. Besides, UPS’s strategy focuses on attracting talented employees to facilitate the development of competencies through the integration of funds, products, and information. Moreover, UPS focuses on practising innovation to facilitate the realization of growth, as well as the creation of an environment, which enables employees to operate effectively and efficiently. That is in accordance with the demands and expectations of the consumers. Similarly, the strategy of the company incorporates increased investment in the core aspects of worldwide distribution, as well as logistics. Operations S trategy Cost - Low-Cost Operations UPS focuses on the achievement or realization of the lowest total overall costs in comparison to other competitors within the industry. One of the aspects of the low-cost operations is the tendency of the company to integrate technology for automation and enhancement of efficiency in addressing the demands and expectations of the target customers. This capability is essential to improving the image and reputation of the firm in its attempts towards becoming a global leader in the industry of operation.

Monday, February 10, 2020

E-Law, Jurisdictions, Contracts Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

E-Law, Jurisdictions, Contracts - Essay Example While the question of an infringing trademark may be easily established in this case since the logos so closely resemble each other, it is a more difficult matter to establish the jurisdiction of Australian courts to deal with the legal issues of an infringing trademark. While specific jurisdiction may not apply in this case, it is possible that general jurisdiction may apply if Atherton’s products are accessible to customers in Australia, either online, through mail order or any other means of access. Any contract of purchase that is entered into by an Australian customer will entitle the case to be valid within Australian jurisdiction. Cyberspace has been defined as â€Å"the total interconnectedness of human beings through computers and telecommunication without regard to Physical geography.† (Gibson 1984) and â€Å"crime has ceased to be largely local in origin and effect† (Liangsiriprasert v United States). Crimes could be multifaceted and multinational, raising issues of local jurisdiction. In the case of DPP v Sutcliffe, the stalking victim and the effect of the accused’s actions occurred in Canada, but Australian Courts had necessary jurisdiction in the matter, due to exercise of personal jurisdiction based on conduct. This case demonstrates that in the case of serious crimes, the validity of local jurisdiction may be automatically established. Personal jurisdiction may also be exercised in cases that do not offend â€Å"traditional notions of fair play and substantial justice† (International Shoe v. Washington). However, this may not apply in Constance Anny’s case since th e matter concerns a potential business infringement of a trademark. Jurisdiction was a limiting factor in Macquarie Bank Limited & Anor v Berg, because the defendant was not in Australia and had not agreed to submit to the jurisdiction of New South Wales. The US website of the defendant contained derogatory material about the Plaintiff Company, therefore the Plaintiff sought to

Friday, January 31, 2020

Economics case study Essay Example for Free

Economics case study Essay (a) Explain whether health care is a private , merit or public care (b) Is health care a free good? Explain your answer (c) Does the quote from the doctor suggest that the market for healthcare is in equilibrium? Again explain your answer (d) Compare the effects of an improvement in the quality of product provided by the NHS and that provided by a private health care company (e) Explain 2 meanings of the word efficiency (f) What is likely to happen to private sector firms which are not efficient? (g) In which market structure is information about best practice likely to be most freely available (h) Discuss the private and external benefits of health care. a) A public good is a good that is a benefit to society and is provided free of cost to society, usually by the government running the country. Theses goods are not provided by private companies and firms as they do not render profit, which thus leads to a market failure due to a lack of provision of public/merit goods. Examples for such goods are roads, streetlights, education, public libraries etc. NHS (National Health Service) is a public good and government organization. It is a service that is free at the point of delivery because society pays for it indirectly through taxes. The NHS provides free healthcare to society, this is especially beneficial for the low income group sector of society thus making it a public good. The demand for this service is high, as healthcare is very expensive in the private sector. As the law of demand states that when the prices increase demand decreases. Here there is no actual price for the service thus the demand must be high. But sometimes this high demand creates a problem as the supply cannot be met; public goods are goods that do not render profits. And thus these organizations are run by government spending and may not really be updated with the best quality as they have a limit in their budgets. They do not have the quality of being efficient as they do not make profits from their services. b) A free good is good that is not scarce, has a zero market price and do not have any opportunity costs when consumed. The key word is opportunity cost. (***Free good is a term used in economics to describe a good that is not scarce. A free good is available in as great a quantity as desired with zero opportunity cost to society.) Opportunity cost is the cost of forgoing one opportunity for another. For example A school has been given 10,000$ and it can either spend it on books and supplies or on a new gym. Thus the opportunity cost to build the gym would be the loss of not buying books and vice versa. An example for free good can be sunlight, air, salt water etc. Considering healthcare, it can be noted that healthcare does not fall into the category of free good. It is an economic good even a public organization like the NHS. As NHS is a government funded subject, it is actually just a free service at the point of delivery. The taxpayers pay for this good; therefore it does have a market value indirectly through taxes. And it is not a resource that is available all the time, thus making it limited and not scarce. As it is government funded, the government can choose to spend their money on something else instead of healthcare. Therefore there is an opportunity cost to providing healthcare. The government can may spend the same amount on public structures (roads, streetlights, traffic lights or on education etc). As provision of healthcare has an opportunity cost, it makes it an economic good and not a free good. (*** Economic good is a good that has an opportunity cost thus giving it a price and hence making it scarce.) c) The market for healthcare (pubic healthcare) is not in equilibrium as the doctor quoteswe just get more patients and we cant cope with anymore. Therefore suggesting that the supply cannot meet the demand and thus the market equilibrium is not met. Market equilibrium is when the market is in a stage where the demand meets the supply. For eg In the figure below, we see that at price P1 the quantity Q1 is both demanded and supplied. Thus the market in equilibrium at the price P1 since the quantity of goods that people wish to buy at price Q1 is equal to quantity of the goods the supplier wants to sell at that price. This price P1 is also called as market clearing price, as everything produced is sold. The market thus remains in equilibrium. The healthcare sector (NHS) does not follow this structure of market equilibrium. The figure below shows the demand for healthcare in the private and public healthcare. This follows the demand laws that when prices increase then the demand for the good decreases as can be in seen in the demand for private healthcare services. Whereas the demand for public healthcare is very high as the price is very low or minimal. (Figure 1) Figure 2 When the prices are low then the suppliers supply less of their goods. In the case of healthcare (public healthcare), the providers of this services may not be provide less of their services but the quality and efficiency may be less and improvements may not be made as they are Government organizations and do not have the funds to do so. Figure 3 shows that because of the low prices the demand for the service increases to Q2 and the healthcare providers can only provide services till Q*. More is being demanded than supplied, and thus there is a shortage as there is an excess of demand. Therefore the market equilibrium is altered as the supply does not meet the demand. d) Improvements in the quality provided by the NHS and the private healthcare company. The private sectors main motive is to earn profit. Any private company or firms main goal is to earn profit. This can be done by having a large consumer base, thus to get achieve a large consumer base the firms continuously improve their services and are always striving for efficiency. Therefore an improvement in the private healthcare sector would not make a big difference as these firms are already always trying to provide better services to the consumers in order to make profits. Even though the prices are higher than the public sector people would with money would chose to a private clinic rather than a government healthcare facility, as it would be wiser for them to make use of the better healthcare facilities. If there are improvements in the public sector, the efficiency of the sector is improved and a lot more people would prefer going to public healthcare facilities rather than spending more money for the same service at a private clinic. The demand for the private healthcare services would decrease, and the firms would have to come up with innovative methods to restore their consumer base as a majority of the consumers would prefer paying less for healthcare for the same services provided by the private sector. The private healthcares may even have to shut down due to increasing costs in running their facilities and fewer buyers for their services thus decreasing the revenue they earn. There would be a producer loss for the private sector and a consumer gain for the consumers as they pay for good quality healthcare at a cheaper rate. But this would mean more government spending on healthcare to ensure that the new improvements continue. Or the government may increase the taxes, and thus the tax payers would have to pay more taxes in order for better public healthcare. e) Efficiency getting any given results with smallest inputs or getting maximum output from minimum inputs Efficiency can be classified into 2 categories * Efficiency in consumption ( Allocative efficiency ) * Efficiency in production ( Productive efficiency ) Allocating resources among consumers so that it would not be possible by any re allocation to make people better off without making anyone worse off is called efficiency in consumption. Allocative efficiency in simple terms can be put as doing the right thing. Defining Allocative efficiency when there is no waste in resources in the production of goods, allocative efficiency is maximized. This occurs when there is 0 excess demand and supply in the market (S=D). For eg when a firm produces 5000 flower pots but the market enables the firm to sell only 3500 then the resources have gone waste by producing the excess 1500 goods and there is an inefficiency in the allocation of resources as they could have been better allocated. The firm could have used the same amount of resources for something like fertilizers which would have had a higher demand. Therefore the allocative optimality occurs when the supply equals demand on the market. Allocating available resources between industries so that it will not be possible to produce more of some goods without producing less of others is called efficiency in production. Productive efficiency occurs when goods are produced at the lowest possible cost per unit, taking into account all costs arising. A firm is productively efficient when total use of resources (factors) result in the lowest possible cost per unit of output. This would be the point where average total is minimized. Productive efficiency means doing things right. In the healthcare sector being economically efficient as well as productively efficient is what the private clinics, hospitals etc aim for. To supply the maximum output at the cost of minimum inputs. f) Private firms that are inefficient would not be able to compete with other firms in a competitive market. If a firm is inefficient, the demand for the firms services and goods decrease and the firms consumer base will move on to another firm that does provide efficient goods and services. Or if a firm is allocatively inefficient then its resources go waste and it is unable to make the same revenue like it would have if it had used proper allocation of resources. Lack of productive efficiency would lead to the cost of production to be higher therefore the firm would suffer losses. Taking the 3 different situations in private healthcare * Inefficient services and quality provided: would lead to the loss of customers and eventually revenue, and more competition from other firms. * Improper allocation of resources(spending): spending and wasting money on frivolous items such as curtains and dà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½cor rather than medicines and treatment facilities , the firm would have a decrease in revenue again as people would expect top quality services rather than fancy dà ¯Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ½cor. * Costs of production and services revenue earned = loss: the firm has spent a lot more on setting up the place and is not gaining maximum profits in return thus being productively inefficient. g) In a private structure information about best practice is likely to be freely available, as in public sectors there is not much incentive to improve techniques and skills. Whereas in the private sector the commercial organizations have an economic incentive to introduce better practices for both market leadership which leads to profits. Eg 2 dentist clinics each one comes up with newer faster and high quality technology for braces such as clinic1 comes up with invisible braces and clinic 2 to outdo clinic 1 comes up with invisible painless clear fit on braces to form a larger consumer market. Whereas in public sector there would be no such highlight as there is no one to compete against and no economic incentive. h) Merit goods are goods that are beneficial to the society and include services like healthcare defense etc. The marginal social benefits in providing healthcare are greater than the marginal production costs. For this reason healthcare is normally left up to the government to provide in many countries as private sector owners find no profit making scheme through it. The private and external benefits of healthcare are many. * Society remains healthy * When society remains healthy then the major workforce remains fit as well * Provision of healthcare = public good, like the NHS makes it easily accessible to the low income society. * If the main workforce of a country has access to healthcare, the overall development of a country increases. * The government also encourages the use /consumption of this service, as it is beneficial for all. * The healthcare services provided, if of good quality, makes sure that everyone in society gets their vaccines, health checkups etc. Thus ensuring that everyone is stable and in a well fit environment. * These services are more beneficial for the lower middle and poorer section of society. The poor do not need to spend much of their little incomes and are assured of the basic services.